The safety of personnel handling rooftop work is one of the biggest concerns for several industries, including construction, maintenance, telecommunications, emergency services, and solar system installation.
The risk of falls, and even deaths, while working on rooftops imposes a legal and ethical responsibility on employers to put proper fall protection measures in place for their workers.
Unprotected edges are a major rooftop hazard for workers. Rooftop workers often have to carry and use different tools and equipment, making it difficult to maintain balance. They also risk slipping or tripping on loose materials or debris kept near the roof's edge.
Without proper protection, workers who accidentally step too close to an unprotected edge may not have anything to stop them from falling.
Openings in the roof, like skylights or ventilation hatches, can also pose a fall hazard if not properly guarded. Workers may accidentally step into and fall through an unguarded opening while performing tasks.
Moreover, access points like ladders and stairways can pose a fall hazard if not properly guarded. Workers can fall off them due to poor placement, insufficient lighting, or other factors.
Plus, weather conditions like rain, snow, ice, or strong winds can make it more difficult for workers to maintain balance while working on a rooftop. Common rooftop hazards include structural failure, unsecured equipment, and improper training.
Passive Fall Protection systems are usually fixed at a point to collectively prevent workers from falling. These solutions do not require any participation from the workers to function.
Fall Restraint Systems restrain workers from reaching fall hazards, such as the rooftop's edge or an elevated platform. The components of this system typically include full-body harnesses, lanyards, and anchor points.
Fall Arrest Systems are designed to stop a worker who has already fallen, limiting the distance of their fall and minimizing the risk of injury.
According to the guidelines by OSHA, employers in the construction industry must ensure fall protection for workers at heights of six feet or more. In other industries, fall protection systems are required for workers at heights of four feet or more.
To meet OSHA's requirements, it may be necessary to implement a combination of safety measures, like a warning line system in conjunction with a personal fall arrest or a guardrail system.
The guardrail system uses a barrier or railing to prevent workers from falling from an elevated surface. It typically includes a top rail, a mid-rail, and vertical posts spaced at intervals along the edges of the roof or access platforms like ladders, stairways, and walkways.
The top rail of the guardrail system is typically between 39 and 45 inches above the working surface, while the mid rail is located midway between the top rail and the working surface. The vertical posts are spaced at intervals along the edge of the working surface to provide support and stability for the guardrail system.
Guardrails can either be fixed in place to provide a permanent fall protection solution for rooftops or designed to be moved from one location to another for short-term use during maintenance or repair work. Temporary guardrails can be quickly and easily installed using clamps or other temporary attachment methods.
These are cable-based systems used for fall restraint and fall arrest purposes. They consist of a horizontal cable or lifeline secured to two or more anchor points that can withstand the forces generated by a fall.
The cable allows workers to move along it while attached to a personal fall arrest system (PFAS) or fall restraint system. The PFAS or fall restraint system typically consists of a full-body harness, lanyard, and other necessary components, connected to the lifeline to prevent falls or limit the worker's movement to prevent them from reaching the fall hazard.
Deadweight horizontal lifeline systems are fall protection systems that use a weighted base to support a horizontal lifeline. These systems are designed to provide fall protection for workers performing tasks on flat or low-slope roofs where traditional anchor points are not available or practical.
The deadweight system consists of a base filled with weight, such as concrete or steel plates, to provide stability and prevent the lifeline from moving during use.
Skylights are one of the most common tripping or falling hazards on rooftops. Since they are not designed to hold heavy weights, workers can fall through them if they are not secured or guarded.
Skylights become even riskier when they are not easily visible due to snow accumulation. There are numerous ways to reduce the risk of falling through skylights, including skylight screens, cages, and guardrails.
Skylight fall protection systems can be customized to fit different skylight sizes and shapes and are designed to meet OSHA safety standards for fall protection. They can also protect people from falling objects, such as tools or debris, and help reduce heat gain and sun glare.
Walkways, fixed ladders, and other platforms can provide safe and secure access to equipment or other areas on the roof.
Access platforms are often integrated with safety features like guardrails, anti-slip surfaces, or edge protection systems to prevent falls. The components of a particular access system may depend on the site's specific needs.
Hatchways are a common way to access roofs. OSHA requires employers to protect their workers from the risk of falling through roof hatches.
The most common fall protection solution for roof hatches is guardrails. Guardrails can be designed in multiple configurations to meet any hatch specifications. They can integrate with existing openings and ladderways.
Investing in rooftop fall protection systems is important to comply with all legal requirements. Plus, it is a responsible decision that shows how committed you are to the safety and well-being of your workers.
The fall protection experts at Lighthouse Safety can work with you to assess the potential hazards and risks and customize a fall protection system that meets your specific needs.